The utility principle can also be used to evaluate rules. Applied to the present question, utilitarianism would have us calculate the utility of a rule permitting performance-enhancing drug use, and compare that to the utility of a rule prohibiting performance-enhancing drug use. This calculation of comparative utility would need to consider various factors from the perspectives of every group affected. After summing up all the benefits and subtracting all the costs, the right rule is the one having the greatest utility in the long run. So players using performance-enhancing drugs could benefit in the short-term from statistics-inflating performances and financially-inflated contracts, but in the long run users could experience negative effects on for example their physical or emotional health. Their use of performance-enhancing drugs could increase excitement for fans through homerun races and the like, but it could in the long term also deflate interest as fans come to expect all players to turn in stellar performances. Performance-enhancing drug use could increase revenues from ticket sales for owners , since stellar performances excite fans; but it could also become difficult to sell high-priced tickets to disillusioned fans.
Surfactant molecules can be synthesized to achieve specific solubility characteristics often referred to as the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). The capability of a surfactant to modify herbicide penetration is partially attributable to the HLB, with each herbicide-species interaction having an optimum HLB requirement for the surfactant employed. HLB numbers for surfactants are often given on technical information sheets for specific products. They range from 0 to 40 with most of them between 1 and 20. Low HLBs are very oil soluble, while higher HLBs prefer water.